Monday, March 30, 2015

Training Assistance: Refresher Training & Certification

Refresher Training
Refresher training and evaluation: [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(4)

Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely. Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to the operator when:
  • The operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner.
     
  • The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident.
     
  • The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not operating the truck safely.
     
  • The operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck.
     
  • A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation of the truck.
Each operator's performance must be evaluated at least once every three years.




Certification
Employers must certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated in accordance with the OSHA standard. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(6)]

The certification must include:
  • Operator name.
     
  • Training date.
     
  • Evaluation date.
     
  • Name of person(s) performing the training or evaluation.


Monday, March 23, 2015

Training Assistance: Training Requirements

Training Requirements


What does the OSHA standard require?

The standard requires employers to develop and implement a training program based on the general principles of safe truck operation, the types of vehicle(s) being used in the workplace, the hazards of the workplace created by the use of the vehicle(s), and the general safety requirements of the OSHA standard. Trained operators must know how to do the job properly and do it safely as demonstrated by workplace evaluation. Formal (lecture, video, etc.) and practical (demonstration and practical exercises) training must be provided. Employers must also certify that each operator has received the training and evaluate each operator at least once every three years. Prior to operating the truck in the workplace, the employer must evaluate the operator's performance and determine the operator to be competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely. Refresher training is needed whenever an operator demonstrates a deficiency in the safe operation of the truck. Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, video tape, written material), practical training (demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the trainee), and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(2)(ii)]
 

Training Program Content

Powered industrial truck operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer's workplace. [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)]

Truck-related Topics [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)(i)]
  • Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate.
     
  • Differences between the truck and the automobile.
     
  • Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and how they work.
     
  • Engine or motor operation.
     
  • Steering and maneuvering.
     
  • Visibility (including restrictions due to loading).
     
  • Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations.
     
  • Vehicle capacity.
     
  • Vehicle stability.
     
  • Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform.
     
  • Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries.
     
  • Operating limitations.
Workplace-related Topics [29 CFR 1910.178(l)(3)(ii)]
  • Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated.
     
  • Composition of loads to be carried and load stability.
     
  • Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking.
     
  • Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated.
     
  • Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated.
     
  • Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated.
     
  • Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle's stability.
     
  • Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust.
     
  • Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation.
If an operator was previously trained in one of these topics, and the training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training on that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely.

Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:
  • Under the direct supervision of persons who have the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence.
     
  • Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.

Monday, March 16, 2015

Enclosed and Hazardous Areas

Only designated types of forklifts can be used in certain hazardous locations in the workplace.
  • Designated Locations
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Carbon Monoxide

Designated Locations
Posted chemical hazard area.
Figure 2. Posted chemical hazard area.
Be familiar with OSHA's truck designations and hazardous location classifications. Only use powered industrial trucks that have the correct designation for the location's classification. Post signs in hazardous areas. [29 CFR 1910.178(c)]

OSHA Powered Industrial Truck Designations


The OSHA standard specifies 11 designations of powered industrial trucks [29 CFR 1910.178(b)]:
  1. D. Diesel powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards.
  2. DS. Diesel powered units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and electrical systems.
  3. DY. Diesel powered units that have all the safeguards of DS units, plus do not have any electrical equipment including the ignition. They have temperature limitation features.
  4. E. Electrically powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards.
  5. ES. Electrically powered units with additional safeguards to the electrical system to prevent emission of hazardous sparks and to limit surface temperatures.
  6. EE. Electrically powered units that have all the safeguards of the E and ES units, plus the electric motor and all other electrical equipment are completely enclosed.
  7. EX. Electrically powered units with electrical fittings and equipment designed, constructed, and assembled so that the units can be used in certain atmospheres containing flammable vapors or dusts.
  8. G. Gasoline powered units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards.
  9. GS. Gasoline powered units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and electrical systems.
  10. LP. Liquefied petroleum gas units with minimal acceptable safeguards against inherent fire hazards.
  11. LPS. Liquefied petroleum gas units with additional safeguards to the exhaust, fuel, and electrical systems.
Designated Locations

The OSHA standard [29 CFR 1910.178(c), see Table N-1] provides a listing of classified locations where trucks with each type of designation can operate.




Indoor Air Quality
When used indoors, forklifts powered with internal combustion engines can present indoor air quality hazards. Cold weather, with the closing of doors and windows, may increase the risk.

Potential Hazards:
  • Concentration of fumes.
Requirements and Recommended Practices: 
  • Do not operate a gasoline/propane/diesel engine for long periods of time in a confined area, such as a truck trailer
  • Shut the engine off when staying inside a small confined area like a trailer.
  • Do not operate a combustion engine within a warehouse, plant or onboard ship without adequate ventilation.
  • Be careful in cold weather. Doors and windows which are normally open may be closed and exhaust and other gases may concentrate.
  • Be careful in small rooms or blocked off areas where gases may accumulate.
  • Drive sensibly. Avoid racing the engine or idling for long periods of time.
  • Properly maintain engines and do not operate an engine requiring servicing. [29 CFR 1910.178(p)(1)]
  • Consider switching to battery-powered forklifts, if much of the work is in poorly ventilated spaces or operators may be over-exposed to exhaust byproducts.
  • Consider upgrading the ventilation system.
  • Install CO monitors to detect levels.
Powered industrial truck engaged in roll-on roll-off (Ro-Ro) operations and subject to 29 CFR 1915.12.
Figure 3. Powered industrial truck engaged in roll-on roll-off (Ro-Ro) operations and subject to 29 CFR 1915.12.
Note: Special Precautions Onboard Ship

If the space to be entered contains an oxygen deficient atmosphere, the space shall be labeled "Not Safe for Workers" or, if oxygen-enriched, "Not Safe for Workers - Not Safe for Hot Work." If an oxygen-deficient or oxygen-enriched atmosphere is found, ventilation shall be provided at volumes and flow rates sufficient to ensure that the oxygen content is maintained at or above 19.5 percent and below 22.0 percent by volume. The warning label may be removed when the oxygen content is equal to or greater than 19.5 and less than 22.0 percent by volume. [29 CFR 1915.12(a)(2)]

For additional information, see the Materials Handling: Hoisting and Hauling Equipment module of the Shipyard Employment eTool.




Carbon Monoxide
Danger of carbon monoxide poisoning in confined spaces.
Figure 4. Danger of carbon monoxide poisoning in confined spaces.
Forklifts powered with internal combustion engines can cause high levels of carbon monoxide in enclosed work areas.

Potential Hazards:
  • Unconsciousness and death may result from carbon monoxide overexposure as the concentration in the bloodstream rises.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Train employees to recognize the warning signs of excessive exposure.
     
  • Learn to recognize the symptoms and signs of carbon monoxide overexposure.
     
  • Be especially aware of the dangers onboard ship. [29 CFR 1915.12]



Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Elevators

Potential Hazards:
  • Overloading. Know the combined weight of the load and the truck.
  • Damage to floor.
  • Insufficient overhead clearance and space in elevator.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Ensure the elevator has a rated capacity to safely lift the combined weight of the load and the truck.
  • Approach elevators slowly and enter squarely after the elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, neutralize the controls, shut off the power, and set the brakes. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(12)]
  • Ensure adequate overhead clearance for truck and space in elevator for the truck and operator.