Monday, June 16, 2014

Truck Trailers and Railroad Cars

Truck Trailers and Railroad Cars
Wheels are chocked prior to boarding.
Figure 14. Wheels are chocked prior to boarding.

Use positive protection to prevent railroad cars from being moved.
Figure 15. Use positive protection to prevent railroad cars from being moved.

Operator using warning light and looking in the direction of travel when exiting a truck trailer.
Figure 16. Operator using warning light and looking in the direction of travel when exiting a truck trailer.

Entering a truck trailer with adequate overhead clearance.
Figure 17. Entering a truck trailer with adequate overhead clearance.

Manual dock plate is secured into position. Always walk and inspect trailer floor before boarding.
Figure 18. Manual dock plate is secured into position. Always walk and inspect trailer floor before boarding.
Potential Hazards:

While entering and leaving truck trailers or railroad cars, be aware of the following:
  • Falling off loading dock.
     
  • Moving trucks or railroad cars during loading and unloading.
     
  • Slipping or inadequate dockboards.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:

The OSHA Powered Industrial Trucks standard [29 CFR 1910.178] lists a number of situations in which special procedures must be followed before starting entry:
  • The brakes of highway trucks shall be set and wheel chocks placed under the rear wheels to prevent the trucks from rolling while they are boarded with powered industrial trucks. [29 CFR 1910.178(k)(1)]

  • Wheel stops or other recognized positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations. [29 CFR 1910.178(k)(2)]
     
  • Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semitrailer and prevent upending during the loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor. [29 CFR 1910.178(k)(3)]
     
  • Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position. [29 CFR 1910.178(k)(4)]
The OSHA Walking-Working Surfaces standard [29 CFR 1910.30(a)] contains requirements for dockboards (bridge plates).
  • Portable and powered dockboards shall be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them. [29 CFR 1910.30(a)(1)]
     
  • Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by being anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their slipping. [29 CFR 1910.30(a)(2)]
     
  • Powered dockboards shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Commercial Standard CS202-56 (1961) "Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps" published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Sec. 1910.6. [29 CFR 1910.30(a)(3)]
     
  • Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on portable dockboards to permit safe handling. [29 CFR 1910.30(a)(4)]
     
  • Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position. [29 CFR 1910.30(a)(5)]
Additional Trailer Loading and Unloading Procedures
  • Inspect the floor of the trailer to be sure that it will support the forklift and load.
     
  • Ensure that the height of the entry door is adequate to clear the height of your vehicle, taking into consideration the height of the loading platform.
     
  • Drive straight across the bridge plates when entering or exiting the truck trailer or railroad car.
     
  • Use dock lights and headlights when working in a dark trailer.
     
  • Sound the horn when entering or exiting the trailer.
     
  • In determining the capacity of the trailer floor to support a forklift, consider various factors, including floor thickness and cross-member spacing or unsupported floor area. In general, the larger the unsupported area, the lower the forklift capacity the trailer will have for the same floor thickness.
     
  • Never use the forklift to open railroad car doors unless:

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