Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Lifting the Load



Operator is lifting the load.
Figure 9. Operator is lifting the load.
Potential Hazards:

While lifting the load, be aware of the following:
  • Insufficient clearance

  • Falling loads

  • Stuck loads
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  1. Check that there is adequate overhead clearance before raising the load. This is especially true when high tiering or in a confined space like a truck trailer. There must be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes, sprinkler systems, etc. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(8)]
     
  2. Carefully lift the load up above the lower stack about 10 cm (4 inches). (Figure 9)
     
  3. Lift the load clear and then tilt the mast back slightly to rest the load against the load backrest extension.
     
  4. Ensure that the load does not catch on any obstructions.
     
  5. Slowly return the lift control lever to the neutral position.

Wednesday, May 21, 2014

Fork Position

Fork Position


Operator slides the forks into the pallet until they are fully under the load.
Figure 8. Operator slides the forks into the pallet until they are fully under the load.
Potential Hazards:
 

While moving the forks into position, be aware of the following:
  • Tipover
     
  • Dropped load
     
  • Collision
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Level the forks before inserting them into the pallet.
     
  • The forks must be placed under the load as far as possible. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(5)]
     
  • Slide the forks into the pallet until they are fully under the load. The forks should be at least two-thirds the length of the load
     
  • Be careful that the forks do not go through to the other side where pallets are closely stacked.
     
  • Center the weight of the load between the forks. Adjust the forks to distribute the weight evenly. Note that forks are adjustable either manually or with a fork positioner.
     
  • Tilt the mast back carefully to stabilize the load. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(5)]
     
  • Pick up an off-center load carefully. There is a greater danger of a tipover.


Thursday, May 15, 2014

Approaching & Mast Position

Approaching
Operator stops slowly in front of the load platform.
Figure 4. Operator stops slowly in front of the load platform.
Potential Hazards:

While approaching a load, be aware of the following:
  • Accidents may occur when:

    • Approaching too fast.

    • Turning too rapidly.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  1. Approach the load slowly and carefully.

    • Stop 20 to 30 cm (8 to 12 inches) in front of the load. (Figure 4)

    • Be certain that the truck is placed squarely in front of the load and that the forks are at the correct height.

    • Set the direction control to neutral
       
  2. Do not raise or lower the forks unless the forklift is stopped and the brake is set.
     
  3. Prior to raising the load, ensure there is adequate overhead clearance. Vision is obstructed after the load is elevated.
     
  4. Use the inching pedal to creep the load to the stack.




Mast Position
Operator lifts load with the mast vertical.
Figure 5. Operator lifts load with the mast vertical.

Tilting the mast back reduces the load distance and makes the load safer to carry.
Figure 6. Tilting the mast back reduces the load distance and makes the load safer to carry.

Tilting the mast forward increases the load distance and makes the load less stable.
Figure 7. Tilting the mast forward increases the load distance and makes the load less stable.
Potential Hazards:

While moving the mast, be aware of the following:
  • Tipovers and dropped loads while moving the mast.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Use extreme care when tilting loads. Do not tilt forward with forks elevated except when picking up or depositing a load. When stacking or tiering, tilt backward only enough to stabilize the load. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(6)]
     
  • Use extra caution when handling loads that approach the truck's maximum rated capacity:

    • Tilt the mast back and position the heaviest part of the load against the carriage. (Figure 6)

    • Travel with the mast tilted back to keep the load stable.
  • Tilt the mast forward cautiously when positioning the load onto the stack. [29 CFR 1910.178 App A]
     
  • Never travel with the load tilted forward. Tilting the load forward increases the load distance and makes the load less stable (Figure 7).

Friday, May 9, 2014

Safe Handling Preparation



A damaged carton is an unsafe load to carry.
Figure 2. A damaged carton is an unsafe load to carry.

Improperly distributed loads may tip the forklift because the center of gravity has shifted.
Figure 3. Improperly distributed loads may tip the forklift because the center of gravity has shifted.
Potential Hazards:
 
Before handling loads, be aware of the following:
  • Off-center loads which may cause tipover or falling loads.
     
  • Overloading which may cause tipover or falling loads.
     
  • Damaged or loose loads.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Secure the load so it is safely arranged and stable. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(1)] Do not carry damaged merchandise unless it has been secured by wrapping or banding. (Figure 2)
     
  • Center the load as nearly as possible. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(1)] Use caution when handling off-center loads that cannot be centered. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(1)] Distribute the heaviest part of the load nearest the front wheels of the forklift.
     
  • Do not overload. Know the stated capacity of your forklift and do not exceed it. [29 CFR 1910.178(o)(2)] Only by keeping within the weight limit can you operate the forklift safely.
     
  • A forklift's capacity is rated for a specified load center. If the load is off-center, improperly distributed, or oversized, it may exceed capacity and unbalance the forklift. (Figure 3)
     
  • Use the load extension backrest.