Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Tipover

There are two basic type of tipovers in a forklift: 1) a forward tip or longitudinal tip, and 2) a lateral or side tip. The procedure to follow in the event of tipover varies depending on the type of tipover and the class of forklifts that you may use in your facility.
Example of warning label on a powered industrial truck showing actions to take in the event of a tipover of a sit-down counterbalanced truck. Note that the operator's seatbelt should already be fastened.
Figure 18. Example of warning label on a powered industrial truck showing actions to take in the event of a tipover of a sit-down counterbalanced truck. Note that the operator's seatbelt should already be fastened.  
  IN CASE OF A TIPOVER:

For tipovers on sit-down counterbalanced trucks:

  • Don't jump. Stay in the forklift.
  • Hold tight to the steering wheel.
  • Brace feet.
  • Lean AWAY from the impact.
  • Lean forward.
Note: Tipover procedures for other types of forklifts may vary. For example operators of stand-up forklifts with rear-entry access should step backwards off the forklift if a tipover occurs.

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Visibility


Operator keeping a clear view.
Figure 16. Operator keeping a clear view.

Operator's clear view of working aisle.
Figure 17. Operator's clear view of working aisle.
Blocked visibility, including partially blocked visibility, increases the chances of accidents. Operators should take measures to minimize the risks.
 

Potential Hazards:

When visibility is impaired, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Collision
  • Falling load
  • Falling off loading dock
  • Worker struck or crushed by forklift
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Keep a clear view. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(6)]
  • Look in the direction of travel. When reversing, look behind. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(6)]
  • Use spotters, rear view mirrors, or other aids to increase visibility.
  • Where available, use concave mirrors when entering buildings or aisles.
  • Equip forklifts with headlights where general lighting is less than two lumens per square foot. [29 CFR 1910.178(h)(2)] In general, forklifts should have headlights if working at night, outdoors, or in any area where additional lighting would improve quality.
  • Drive slowly into and out of warehouses or other buildings. Going from bright daylight into a darkened warehouse may blind drivers just long enough to hit another worker, vehicle or object.
  • Be especially careful on loading docks; stay away from the edge.
  • Add physical barriers such as ramps, raised concrete staging areas and heavy-gauge safety chains in front of dock openings. Use protective guard rails.
  • Add a "warning track" of yellow paint on the floor near dock openings.
  • Slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(4)]

Thursday, April 17, 2014

Safe Travel Practices

Operator looking in the direction of travel and keeping arms in the confines of the vehicle.
Figure 13. Operator looking in the direction of travel and keeping arms in the confines of the vehicle.

Operator traveling with load lowered.
Figure 14. Operator traveling with load lowered.

Do not travel with the load elevated.
Figure 15. Do not travel with the load elevated.
Complying with safe travel practices and OSHA regulations will improve safety in your workplace.

Potential Hazards:

While traveling, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Overturning forklift
     
  • Falling load
     
  • Being struck or crushed by forklift
     
  • Collisions
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Always look in all directions before proceeding.
     
  • Always look in the direction of travel. If the load blocks your view, travel in reverse. Keep a clear view.
     
  • Observe all traffic regulations, including authorized plant speed limits. Maintain a safe distance, approximately three truck lengths from the truck ahead, and keep the truck under control at all times. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(1)]
     
  • Yield the right of way to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in emergency situations. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(2)]
     
  • Do not pass other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other dangerous locations. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(3)]
     
  • Cross railroad tracks diagonally wherever possible. Do not park closer than 8 feet from the center of railroad tracks. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(5)]
     
  • Operate at a speed that will permit the truck to be brought to a stop in a safe manner under all travel conditions. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(8)]
     
  • Do not engage in stunt driving and horseplay. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(9)]
     
  • Slow down for wet and slippery floors. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(10)]
     
  • Properly secure the dockboard or bridgeplates before driving over them. Drive over them carefully and slowly and never exceed their stated capacity. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(11)]
     
  • Approach elevators slowly and enter squarely after the elevator car is properly leveled. Once on the elevator, neutralize the controls, shut off the power, and set the brakes. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(12)]
     
  • Separate forklift and pedestrian traffic as much as possible. Use established pedestrian walkways with guard rails and strictly enforce their use.
     
  • Never carry passengers. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(3)]
     
  • Keep arms or legs inside the confines of your vehicle. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(4)]
     
  • Watch for surface obstructions; even a small bump can cause a load to fall off elevated forks.
     
  • Never drive up to anyone who is in front of a bench or any other fixed object. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(1)]
     
  • Do not travel into a position that, if the forklift jumped forward, the brakes failed, or the wrong lever was pushed, a coworker could be pinned between the forklift and another object.

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Parking


An unattended vehicle is a danger to the operator and others unless it is properly secured.

Potential Hazards:

While parking and leaving an unattended vehicle, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Danger of an improperly parked truck being struck by personnel or objects.
     
  • Danger of unintended movement of the truck.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:

A powered industrial truck is considered "unattended":
  • When the operator is 25 ft. or more away from the vehicle even if it remains in his view, or whenever the operator leaves the vehicle and it is not in his view. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(5)(ii)]
When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes set. Wheels shall be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(5)(i)]
  • Select a hard, level surface.
     
  • Do not park on a grade, unless wheels are blocked.
     
  • Park in authorized areas only, unless the forklift is disabled. Park a safe distance from fire aisles, stairways or fire equipment. Do not block traffic. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(14)]
     
  • Fully engage the parking brake.
     
  • Lower the load engaging means (lifting mechanism) fully.
     
  • Neutralize the controls:
    • Set the direction lever in neutral, and lock the mechanism (if available).
  • Tilt the mast forward slightly and lower the forks to the floor until the fork tips touch the floor.
     
  • If the forklift is disabled, and the forks cannot be lowered to the floor, follow proper lockout/tagout procedures. [29 CFR 1910.147] Do not allow anyone to stand or pass under the forks. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(2)]
     
  • Turn the key to OFF, and stop the engine. Remove the key.
     
  • Get off the forklift without jumping.
Note: When the operator of an industrial truck is dismounted and within 25 ft. of the truck still in his view, the load engaging means shall be fully lowered, controls neutralized, and the brakes set to prevent movement. It is not required that the power be shut off. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(5)(iii)]