Friday, March 28, 2014

Traveling on Inclines

Traveling on Inclines

Drive loaded trucks forward going up a ramp.
Figure 12. Drive loaded trucks forward going up a ramp.
Potential Hazards:

While traveling on a grade or incline, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Tipover
     
  • Falling load
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Drive loaded trucks forward going up a ramp with the load upgrade and drive in reverse going down a ramp with the load upgrade.

  • Always drive unloaded trucks with the the forks downgrade.
     
  • Never drive with the load downgrade.
     
  • Never turn a forklift on a grade.
For more information, see the Workplace: Ramps and Grades module.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Steering, Turning and Changing Direction

Steering, Turning and Changing Direction
Operator is releasing the inching pedal, setting the direction control to forward and pressing the accelerator. (The brake is the middle pedal.)
Figure 8. Operator is releasing the inching pedal, setting the direction control to forward and pressing the accelerator. (The brake is the middle pedal.)

Changing Direction

Potential Hazards:

While changing directions, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Tipover.
     
  • Collision with a pedestrian, another vehicle or an object.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Come to a complete stop before changing directions.
     
  • Use a horn or warning light to warn pedestrians when reversing.

Reversing

Reversing can increase the chances of injury and accident. Use extreme caution when backing up.

Potential Hazards:

While backing up or reversing, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Pedestrians being struck by or crushed by the forklift.
     
  • Collision with another forklift or racking.
Warning strobe light flashing as operator backs up.
Figure 9. Warning strobe light flashing as operator backs up.

Using pedal to shift from reverse to forward.
Figure 10. Using pedal to shift from reverse to forward.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Keep a clear view. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(6)]
     
  • Look in the direction of travel. When reversing, look behind. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(6)]
     
  • Be aware of limited visibility, and use extreme caution when driving in reverse.
     
  • Consider the use of ground guides, rear-view mirrors, spotters, or other aids to increase visibility.
     
  • Consider the noise level in your workplace. Do not assume pedestrians or bystanders are able to hear a back-up alarm.
     
  • Allow plenty of room for pedestrians. You cannot anticipate what people will do. Many have no idea how quickly forklifts accelerate and how sharply they turn.
     
  • Never assume pedestrians or bystanders are aware of the presence of heavy equipment and the intended direction of travel.
     
  • Do not grab the overhead guard when traveling in reverse. This could expose the operator's finger to serious injury.
An exaggerated tail swing is caused by rear wheel steering; the operator is turning left and the rear is swinging toward the right.
Figure 11. An exaggerated tail swing is caused by rear wheel steering; the operator is turning left and the rear is swinging toward the right.

Turning and Steering

Potential Hazards:

While steering, be aware of these potential hazards:
  • Collision with pedestrians or objects due to the forklift's tail swinging to the side opposite the direction of the turn.
     
  • Falling load following collision.
     
  • Tipover caused by turning too sharply.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • When turning, reduce speed to a safe level. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(15)]
     
  • Proceed with caution when making turns, especially when working in confined areas or narrow aisles. When the lift truck turns a corner, the rear of the lift truck swings in the opposite direction of the turn.
     
  • Anticipate the rear-end swing and start the turn as close to the inside corner as possible. Plan your route and anticipate turns.
     
  • Never turn with forks elevated.
     
  • Never turn on a grade. The forklift may tipover laterally on even a very small grade.

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

Forklift: Operating At Speed


Operator slows down and sounds the horn at cross aisles where vision is obstructed.
Figure 5. Operator slows down and sounds the horn at cross aisles where vision is obstructed.

Observe all posted speed limits and warning signs.
Figure 6. Observe all posted speed limits and warning signs.

Forklifts are less stable on turns and grades and can tip over.
Figure 7. Forklifts are less stable on turns and grades and can tipover.
View animation

Potential Hazards:

While traveling avoid these potential hazards:
  • Tipover caused by driving too fast.
     
  • Collision with pedestrians and obstacles caused by inattention and not being able to stop in time.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:

Be aware of the travel conditions along your planned route:
  • Under all travel conditions the truck must operate at a speed that will permit it to be brought to a stop in a safe manner. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(8)]
     
  • The driver must slow down for wet and slippery floors. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(10)]
     
  • The driver must look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of, the path of travel. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(6)]
     
  • The driver must slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and other locations where vision is obstructed. If the load being carried obstructs forward view, the driver shall be required to travel with the load trailing. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(4)]
     
  • While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level by turning the steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(15)].
     
  • Grades shall be ascended or descended slowly. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(7)].
     
  • When ascending or descending grades in excess of 10 percent, loaded trucks shall be driven with the load upgrade. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(7)(i)]
     
  • Running over loose objects on the roadway surface shall be avoided. [29 CFR 1910.178(n)(14)].

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Forklift: Starting & Stopping

Starting/Stopping
Starting

Before starting a forklift, be sure to conduct a pre-operation inspection. In addition, conduct an operational check after starting the engine.
  • Ensure that your way is clear. Sound your horn in warning or use a spotter if your view is obstructed.
     
  • Proceed cautiously down the travel path watching for dangerous blind spots.
Stop signs posted to regulate traffic flows.
Figure 4. Stop signs posted to regulate traffic flows.
Stopping
  • Select an area to park. Do not park in an unauthorized area. Do not block an aisle or exits. Follow your company's parking procedures.
     
  • Apply brake slowly and stop.
     
  • Neutralize the controls.
     
  • Set the parking brake.
     
  • Turn off the ignition.
     
  • If the truck is parked on an incline, block the wheels.
For more information, see Parking.

Thursday, March 6, 2014

Forklift: Mounting & Dismounting

Operating the Forklift: Traveling & Maneuvering


Employee traveling and maneuvering a forklift.
Figure 1. Employee traveling and maneuvering a forklift.
 
Forklift operators must follow safe operating rules at all times. Operators must always maintain control of the forklift, keep a proper lookout, and operate the forklift at speeds safe for the particular operation and worksite conditions.
  • Mounting and Dismounting
  • Starting/Stopping
  • Operating at Speed
  • Steering, Turning and Changing Direction
  • Traveling on Inclines
  • Parking
  • Safe Travel Practices
  • Visibility
  • Tipover

Mounting and Dismounting


Potential Hazards:
  • Hitting head on overhead cage.
     
  • Slips, trips and falls, especially feet slipping off step.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Be sure that your hands are clean and dry to prevent slipping when grabbing handhold.
     
  • Check your shoes for grease before entering the vehicle.
     
  • Grasp handhold and get a good grip. Never grab the steering wheel because it could cause you to lose balance if it moves.
     
  • Always be careful with your footing when mounting and dismounting vehicle.
     
  • Pull or lower your body carefully into or out of cab. Dismounting is the opposite of mounting -- do not jump.
     
  • Wear appropriate footwear to prevent skids.
 
Operator grasping hand grips when mounting the vehicle.
Figure 2. Operator grasping hand grips when mounting the vehicle.

Operator dismounting a forklift.
Figure 3. Operator dismounting a forklift.