Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts -> Tires & other safety / warning devices

Tires


Forklift tire.
Figure 1. Forklift tire.
There are several different types of forklift tires, depending on how the forklift is used. Common types of forklift tires include pneumatic, solid, and polyurethane. As part of the daily inspection of the forklift, check tire condition, including cuts and gouges, and check pressure for air-filled tires.










Other Safety and Warning Devices


Forklift operator using a seat belt.
Figure 1. Forklift operator using a seat belt.
 
Forklifts can incorporate many warning and safety devices to help protect operators, pedestrians, other forklift operators and others.










Warning and Safety Devices


Fire extinguisher.
Figure 2. Fire extinguisher.

Safety mirror with pedestrian in view.
Figure 3. Safety mirror with pedestrian in view.

Warning strobe light flashes as operator backs up.
Figure 4. Warning strobe light flashes as operator backs up.
Powered industrial trucks may be equipped by the manufacturer with the following safety devices:
  • Seat belts and similar restraints
     
  • Horns
     
  • Backup alarms that sound when forklift reverses
     
  • Fire extinguisher
     
  • Warning lights that flash
     
  • Directional signals and brake lights
     
  • Mirrors
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Equip every power-propelled truck with an operator-controlled horn, whistle, gong, or other sound-producing device. ANSI B56.1-1969 Incorporated by reference [29 CFR 1910.178(a)(2)]
     
  • Equip every truck with an operator-controlled horn, whistle, gong, or other sound-producing device. ANSI/ITSDF B56.1-2005.
     
  • Where appropriate to the worksite, equip trucks with additional sound-producing or visual (such as lights or blinkers) devices. ANSI/ITSDF B56.1-2005.
Additional Information:
  • OSHA Instruction CPL 02-01-028 (CPL 2-1.28A) - Compliance Assistance for the Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training Standards (Nov. 30, 2000). Section 1910.178 does not currently contain requirements for the use of operator restraint systems. However, Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act requires employers to protect employees from serious and recognized hazards.
  • OSHA's Seat Belt Policy: OSHA's enforcement policy on the use of seat belts on powered industrial trucks in general industry is that employers are obligated to require operators of powered industrial trucks that are equipped with operator restraint devices, including seat belts, to use the devices.
  • ANSI/ITSDF B56.1-2005 - Safety Standard for Low Lift and High Lift Trucks.

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts -> Overhead Guards


Overhead guard

An overhead guard is designed to protect the operator from falling objects.
  • Overhead Guard





Overhead Guard
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Use an overhead guard as protection against falling objects such as small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc., but not to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(9)]
     
  • Wear a hard hat when appropriate for additional protection.
     
  • Keep hands and feet within the forklift to avoid danger of falling loads.
     
  • Use a load backrest extension behind the forks whenever necessary to minimize the possibility of the load or part of it from falling rearward. [29 CFR 1910.178(m)(10)]
     
  • Equip all high-lift rider trucks, order-picker trucks and rough-terrain forklift trucks with an overhead guard manufactured in accordance with ANSI B56.1-1969, "Safety Standard for Low and High Lift Trucks," unless operating conditions do not permit. [29 CFR 1910.178(e)(1)]
     
  • As part of the daily inspection of the forklift, check the overhead guard for broken welds, missing bolts, or other damage.


Friday, October 18, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts -> Battery

Recharging battery.
Figure 1. Recharging battery.


This section reviews the parts of batteries used in electric forklifts.
  • Parts of an Industrial Battery







Parts of An Industrial Battery
Electric forklift service personnel need to know the parts of an industrial battery in order to properly and safely handle it at the end of every shift. The parts of a industrial battery include:
This is a cutaway of an industrial battery showing the rugged plates, extra heavy grids and impact-resistant cases.
Figure 2. This is a cutaway of an industrial battery showing the rugged plates, extra heavy grids and impact-resistant case.
  • Cell: The interior of the battery is divided into cells, with each cell containing a set of alternately spaced positive and negative plates. A negative plate is contained at each end of the cell to maintain proper electrical balance. The battery's voltage is determined by the number of cells.
     
  • Separator: Separators are located between the plates for insulation. 
  • Battery tray: The cells are in a steel container called the battery tray.
     
  • Electrolyte: The cell elements are fully submerged in a sulfuric acid solution called the electrolyte.
     
  • Element: A positive and negative terminal is visible at the top of each cell. This assembly is known as the element. It is placed in the jar, the acid-proof, high-impact resistant container. A high-impact cover seals to the jar.
    • Positive terminal. All the positive plates are connected to the positive terminal.

    • Negative terminal. All the negative plates are connected to the negative terminal.
Potential Hazards:
  • Electrical shock.
     
  • Explosion.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Never accidentally create an electrical current by connecting the positive to the negative terminal through any part of your body or through any other conductor.
     
  • Never wear metal jewelry which will conduct electricity when working around batteries.
     
  • Never put metal articles or tools on top of the batteries or place conductive articles across the battery posts.
     
  • Always shut the charger off when connecting or disconnecting the battery. An arc or spark could cause an explosion.
     
  • Use only non-sparking, non-conductive tools.
     
  • Keep the vent plugs in place at all times except when adding water to the cells or taking hydrometer readings.
     
  • Check the battery cables and cable connectors regularly. If the insulation is worn or connector contacts are pitted, the truck should be removed from service and repairs made immediately.
     
  • Follow proper lockout/tagout procedures [29 CFR 1910.147] when working on a battery in a forklift.

Additional Information:
  • Electrical. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page.
  • Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout). OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page.

Friday, October 11, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts -> Instruments

Parts: Instruments


Fuel gauge.
Figure 7. Fuel Gauge

Fuel Gauge

The fuel gauge shows the amount of fuel remaining.

Requirements and Recommended Practices:

  • Do not operate while extremely low on fuel.
     
  • Check the fuel level during your daily inspections.
     
  • Refuel only in designated areas. Clean up any spills or mark the hazard area until it can be cleaned.

Hour Meter

Hour meter indicating the total time that forklift has been in service.The hour meter records the number of hours that a truck has been used. It should be recorded in your Daily Inspection Log. Maintenance is often scheduled by hours of truck use, so it is an important indicator.

Requirements and Recommended Practices:

  • Log the hours of use daily.
     
  • Do not exceed manufacturer's recommended hours in service.
     
  • Properly maintain vehicles according to manufacturer's recommended maintenance schedule. Only trained and authorized personnel may service a forklift.

Battery Discharge Indicator

Battery low.Electric forklifts have a battery discharge indicator that shows when a battery charge is low. Some ways that battery gauges on the instrument panel indicate the battery is discharged are:
  • the warning light indicator is still on.
  • the gauge needle is in the warning zone.
  • a percentage indicator shows the battery charge level.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Return to the battery recharging area if the battery gauge is low.
  • Recharge the battery only if you are trained and authorized to do so.
For the procedures, see Battery Charging and Changing Procedures.

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts-> Instruments

Parts: Instruments


Engine temperature gauge in the normal zone.
Figure 5. Engine temperature gauge in the normal zone.
The engine temperature gauge is similar to the engine temperature gauge found on a car or truck.
  • Engine temperature may be indicated by "C" for cold or green indicating safe operating temperature, while a hot, overheating engine may be indicated by an "H" for hot or red.
     
  • Refer to your owner's manual for the appearance and significance of your engine temperature gauge.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Do not operate a forklift if the light comes on or the gauge indicates an overheated engine.
     
  • Check for leaks. Clean up any spills or mark the hazard area until it can be cleaned.
     
  • Notify your supervisor or maintenance personnel.
     
  • Allow an overheated forklift to cool down before removing the radiator cap. When removing the cap, wear leather gloves and eye protection and open the cap slightly to check for stored pressure before completely removing the cap. Only trained and authorized personnel may service a forklift.

Transmission Temperature

Transmission temperature in normal range.The transmission temperature warning light or gauge indicates when the transmission temperature is too high.

Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Do not operate a forklift if the light comes on or the gauge indicates an overheated transmission.
     
  • Check for leaks. Clean up any spills or mark the hazard area until it can be cleaned.
     
  • Notify your supervisor or maintenance personnel.
     
  • Transmission fluid may need to be added. Only trained and authorized personnel may service a forklift.

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Types & Fundamentals: Parts->Instruments

Parts: Instruments


Dashboard showing gauges on a forklift.
Figure 1. Dashboard showing gauges on a forklift.
Forklifts have a variety of instruments on the dashboard. Read your operator’s manual and become familiar with each of the warning lights and gauges on the dashboard. Never operate a forklift if a warning light or gauge signals an unsafe condition.
  • Instrument Panel
  • Oil Pressure Gauge
  • Temperature Gauge/Light
  • Transmission Temperature
  • Fuel Gauge
  • Hour Meter
  • Battery Discharge Indicator

Instrument Panel

These common forklift gauges show normal operating condition.Read your operator's manual and become familiar with each of the warning lights and gauges on the dashboard. Know what each one indicates. 


Potential Hazards:
  • Forklift malfunction
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Turn on the forklift and check all the warning indicators on your dashboard.
  • Never operate a forklift with a warning light or gauge signaling an unsafe condition. 
  • Do not attempt a repair unless authorized to do so.
  • Report any abnormality to your supervisor. 
  • Mechanical breakdown 
Typical warning gauges.

Oil Pressure Gauge

The oil pressure gauge indicates the oil pressure inside the engine. An oil pressure warning light may also be present.


Requirements and Recommended Practices:
    Electronic engine oil gauge, warning indicators.
  • Do not operate the forklift if the light comes on or the gauge indicates oil pressure problems. 
  • Check for leaks. Clean up any spills or mark the hazard area until it can be cleaned.
  • Notify your supervisor or maintenance personnel.
  • Only trained and authorized personnel may service a forklift.