Friday, May 24, 2013

Types & Fundamentals Part 7: Power Sources II

Refueling: Gasoline and Diesel
Forklifts that use gasoline are easy to refuel. However, gasoline is very flammable.

Potential Hazards:
  • Exposure to explosive fumes.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
Operator refueling diesel-powered forklift.
Figure 2. Operator refueling diesel-powered forklift.
  • Refuel only at designated safe locations.

    • A designated safe location outdoors is preferable to a refueling area indoors. Do not refuel trucks in hazardous areas or around heat sources.
  • Stop the engine during refueling.
  • Do not smoke while refueling.
  • Do not allow the forklift to become low on fuel or run out of fuel. Sediment or other impurities in the tank could be drawn into the fuel system causing difficulties in starting and actual damage to the internal components.
  • Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day.
  • Do not fill the tank to the top; it may overflow because fuel expands as it is heated.
  • Follow correct refueling procedures:

    1. Park the forklift in the designated refueling area.

    2. Place the transmission in Neutral.

    3. Lower the forks to the ground.

    4. Engage the parking brake.

    5. Shut off the engine.

    6. Open the filler cap.

    7. Fill the tank slowly (if spillage occurs, wipe off fuel and wash down the area with water).

    8. Close the filler cap.

Friday, May 17, 2013

Types & Fundamentals Part 6: Power Sources

The two main power sources for powered industrial trucks are internal combustion, which uses a traditional engine that runs on liquid petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), gasoline, diesel, or other fuel, and electric, which uses an on-board battery. This section provides information on these power sources, including some of the potential hazards and possible solutions associated with their use and with refueling and battery charging/changing operations.

Other power sources that may become more widespread in the future include fuel cells and hybrid systems. Hydrogen fuel cells will have zero emissions and quiet operation plus the ability to be refueled as quickly as gasoline engines. Hybrid systems will use a combination of fuel cells and batteries.

Internal Combustion

The most widely used forklifts have an internal combustion engine powered by fuels that include gas, liquid petroleum, diesel fuel, and compressed natural gas. Forklifts with internal combustion engines can be quickly refueled but require regular maintenance checks for leaks of fuel or oil, worn parts requiring replacement, and to keep systems working properly. Newer forklifts with internal combustion engines have on-board sensors that monitor and adjust emissions and have catalytic converters that help reduce emissions.

Potential Hazards:
  • Exposure to engine exhaust containing carbon monoxide. If the engine is not properly combusting fuel, the exhaust may contain high levels of carbon monoxide.
  • Exposure to spills and leaks of fuel and oil.
Requirements and Recommended Practices:
  • Do not operate in a poorly ventilated area where fumes can concentrate.
  • Carefully wash away or completely evaporate spillage of oil or fuel.
  • As part of the pre-operation inspection, check all fluid levels, including oil, water, and hydraulic.
  • Check for leaks from the hydraulic cylinder, the battery, and the fuel system.
  • Check the exhaust color for incomplete combustion. For example, black smoke may be an indication of incomplete combustion.
  • Check and report unusual noises or excessive vibration.


Friday, May 10, 2013

Types & Fundamentals Part 5

Class VI: Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors
The following are examples of Class VI powered industrial trucks.
Lift Code 1: Sit-Down Rider (Draw Bar Pull Over 999 lbs.).
Lift Code 1: Sit-Down Rider
(Draw Bar Pull Over 999 lbs.).

Class VII: Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks
Class VII – Rough terrain forklift is a generic term used to describe forklifts typically intended for use on unimproved natural terrain and disturbed terrain construction sites. However, the term “rough terrain” does not imply that the forklift can be safely operated on every conceivable type of terrain.

There are three basic types of rough terrain forklift:

Vertical mast type.
Vertical mast type.
This is an example of a ruggedly constructed forklift and is designed to be used primarily outdoors.
Variable reach type.
Variable reach type.
This is an example of a vehicle equipped with a telescoping boom, which enables it to pick and place loads at various distances and lift heights in front of the machine. The ability to reach out in front of the forklift allows the operator flexibility in the placement of a load.
Truck/trailer mounted.
Truck/trailer mounted.
This is an example of a portable self-propelled rough terrain forklift that is typically transported to the job site. It is mounted on a carrier to the back of a truck/trailer and is used to unload heavy items from the truck/trailer at the job site. Note that not all truck/trailer mounted forklifts are rough terrain forklifts.

Friday, May 3, 2013

Types & Fundamentals Part 4

Class IV: Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Solid/Cushion Tires)
The following are examples of Class IV powered industrial trucks.
Lift Code 3: Fork, Counterbalanced (Cushion Tire).
Lift Code 3: Fork, Counterbalanced (Cushion Tire).

Class V: Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)
The following are examples of Class V powered industrial trucks.
Lift Code 4: Fork, Counterbalanced (Pneumatic Tire).
Lift Code 4: Fork, Counterbalanced (Pneumatic Tire).